Athlete performance enhancement
Spinal manipulation therapy
Improve and enhance athletic performance.
Many studies support the empirical evidence that cryostimulation can enhance muscle injury and damage recovery, enhance muscle strength performance recovery, decrease exercise-induced muscle damage and soreness, as well as decrease delayed onset muscle soreness especially in the highly active individual and more elite-level athlete. The cryostimulation may allow more movement to take place in the inflamed and painful joint and spine, resulting in increased muscle flexibility and range of motion, increased active muscle power and enhanced and facilitated physical therapy and rehabilitation.
A single cryostimulation treatment studies has been shown to significantly enhance muscle injury recovery time and decrease muscle soreness. Also, cryostimulation markedly enhanced exercise-induced muscle damage recovery with increased strength and decreased pain versus infrared radiation and passive modalities. Studies have also shown that cryostimulation can enhance recovery time in re-establishing homeostasis of serum muscle damage markers, including creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and calcium. In addition, studies have shown that cryostimulation can enhance oxygen delivery in the working muscles, decrease muscle spasticity and increase muscle flexibility and range of motion.
Also, cryostimulation has been shown to decrease pain and disability and increase functional outcomes in frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis, a common 2 to 5 year self-limiting disabling pain disorder, often causing severe shoulder pain and disability and resistant to the ambiguous conventional treatment.
Shockwave therapy for muscle power and flexibility
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) promote and enhance the formation of new tendon and ligament cells and skeletal muscle cells. ESWT has been shown to promote and enhance healing and repair of injured tendon and ligament tissues with subsequent decrease in aberrant scar tissue formation, by way of promoting tenocyte proliferation, migration and regeneration, and mechanically stimulating collagen synthesis and fibroblast synthesis.
ESWT has been proven to accelerate regeneration and healing of damage skeletal myocytes after acute muscle injury or strain as well as in the chronic muscle injury. This allows the athlete to return sooner to sport after a muscle strain. Muscle injuries are the most common injury in sport, of which hamstring strains are the most prevalent. Strains account for almost half of all sports injuries and are responsible for about a quarter of days of absence away from training and competition. Studies have confirmed that muscle tightness and decreased muscle flexibility significantly increase the risk for a muscle strain. Notable to the athlete, ESWT has shown to markedly decrease hamstring muscle tightness and increase hamstring muscle flexibility as well as decrease muscle spasticity.
Furthermore, the repetitive application of ESWT to the inured and uninjured muscle has been proven to extend the beneficial effect of increased microcirculation in the muscle tissue resulting in the enhancement of the functional output of the muscle.
Shockwave therapy for sport injuries
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) has been effectively used in the treatment of: avascular necrosis, bone death due to compromised and/ or lack of blood supply; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction healing, the functional outcome of ligament reconstruction relies on restoration of adequate blood supply and firm healing of the tendon to the bone; shoulder rotator cuff tendinopathy, the inability of the supraspinatus rotator cuff tendon to fully heal and recover after injury can be attributed to its poor anatomical vascular supply; and muscle ischaemia, decreased and inadequate blood flow to muscle tissue due to several mechanisms including muscle spasms.
ESWT has been effectively used in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis and heel spur and chronic Achilles tendinopathy, that is the most common running injuries, pain under the heel and foot, and athlete performance hindrances. ESWT has been shown to be significantly more effective in reducing pain versus the conventional treatment of including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, orthotics and local cortisone injections.
ESWT can produce pain relief and beneficial functional outcomes and improvements in the treatment of frozen shoulder, a common 2 to 5 year self-limiting disabling pain disorder, often causing severe shoulder pain and disability and resistant to the ambiguous conventional treatment. Also, ESWT has been effectively used in the treatment of chronic tennis elbow, a common overuse injury in sport and significant athlete performance hindrance. ESWT has been shown to be greatly more effective in reducing pain and increasing grip strength with more long-lasting results versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of these musculoskeletal disorders.
ESWT has been effectively used in the treatment of non-union fractures and stress fractures that respond poorly to the conventional treatment. Stress fractures are commonly misdiagnosed in the active individual and athlete, and can be debilitating to the athlete’s treatment recovery time, training and sport performance.
ESWT has been proven to decrease pain and improve functional outcomes in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome, a combination of ligament, tendon and bony pathologies of the shoulder. Shoulder impingement syndrome is the most common cause of shoulder pain and loss of shoulder function in the active individual and athlete who participate in repetitive upper limb work and throwing activities.
ESWT has been effectively used in enhancing recovery and reducing excessive scar tissue formation of damaged ankle ligaments after an ankle sprain. Despite the high prevalence, disability and severity of lifestyle-limiting symptoms that follow ankle sprains, they are often misinterpreted as benign injuries that will resolve quickly with limited treatment. ESWT has been effectively used to reduce painful excessive scarring after hand surgery. Detrimental and excessive scar tissue formation after musculoskeletal injury can significantly hinder treatment recovery time and rehabilitation, and prevent the active individual and athlete from participating sooner in their sports activity.
Current athlete performance issues
In the last decade sport and overuse injuries, especially in younger athletes, have increased more than 5 times. More than 50% of athletes will develop an overuse injury, and more than 30% will require surgical intervention. Treatments of these overuse disorders are complex, ambiguous and problematic and are often resistant to conventional treatments. Musculoskeletal disorders are often incorrectly and ineffectively diagnosed and managed in primary care.
It is important for athletes and the active individual to note and understand that joint dysfunction can cause significant weakness of its associated muscles even if the dysfunctional joint does not present with any pain or other symptoms through an ongoing inhibition that prevents the weak muscle from being fully activated, a phenomenon known as arthrogenic muscle inhibition.
Inflammation is a necessary protective defence mechanism of the human being against injury and infection. The inflammatory response function to localize and eliminate the injurious agent, protect the injured tissue from further damage and to remove damaged tissue components, so that the body can heal itself. Studies have shown that excessive and chronic inflammation, in addition to oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology (cause) of exercise induced-muscle soreness and muscle damage.
Free radicals are toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that can cause severe damage to living cells and tissues in a process known as oxidative stress. Studies have shown that oxidative stress, in addition to increased inflammation, play a vital role in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, vigorous exercise may cause and contribute to aberrant oxidative stress and produce detrimental effects on muscle tissue.